PARANORMAL ANSWERS RESEARCH TEAM

Indiana PARANORMAL INVESTIGATION & RESEARCH Validation & Resolution

Why Do It In The Dark? . . . Paranormal Investigating by Kelly Schuck

Dusk to predawn is when our clients experience most paranormal activity.  Activity tends to increase after midnight and especially between 3 a.m. and 4 a.m.    While there is no scientific evidence to really support this conception, I will add that there seems to be less outside noise contamination from the living such as street traffic as the night gets later. When you eliminate your main sense of sight, you tend to be in a more heightened sense of awareness where your hearing and primal feelings of another presence seem stronger.  That being said, in the event that the activity is present during the daytime, we will do our best to investigate then too.  Also since most investigators as well as clients are normal working people, a weekend night seems to be the most optimal time for us to conduct our research.

Through our experience, we have noted two different types of anomalies.  There are anomalies that seem to emit their own light and others that are dark grey or black shadows.  The shadowy anomalies could be captured during daylight with a normal camera but stand out a bit more using infrared in total darkness. The light-emitting anomalies would be difficult to film in daylight.  You might compare them to lighting a tea candle outside on a bright summer day.  That same tea candle would appear much brighter in a dark room.  To effectively capture both types requires eliminating all light and filming with infrared cameras.

      Why Do Some People See Ghosts? - by Kelly Schuck 

                             

Why do some people see ghosts?  Perhaps they are simply there and have always been there.  I believe there are people who are more sensitive or in tune with the spirit world and can see what others cannot see.  Yet if a ghost wanted to reveal itself, anyone could see it.  Perhaps the ghost is more persistent when there is a message intended for us.  I think the real question that should be asked here is "Are you going to allow yourself to believe what you see?"  Many of us have been told since we were young children that there is no such thing as ghosts.  You had a bad dream.   There is nothing in the closet.  Your eyes are playing tricks on you. True there is a difference between seeing and perceiving.  There are times when our eyes see an image, our brain processes the image, yet we perceive something entirely different.  Maybe it's matrixing?  Five of us looked at the above photo of the woman apparition.  That didn't appear so crazy to each of us. Upon closer examination, once we enlarged the photo, it took on a creepier appearance because three weeks prior I had designed a logo for a promotional event.  I started to see a very similar image. 

                          

Maybe we read too much into things.  Was it sheer coincidence?  OK, so when we inspected the lower right hand corner each of us saw an additional image.  I am telling myself this has to be matrixing.  Tell me what do you see climbing out of the grave over the iron fence?  This is really weird from a photo taken inside the house. And oh, I forgot to tell you that an older living relative practices black magic. 

                                            

Sometimes it is hard to remain objective.  Your eyes see something, but you are so busy trying to process it that you wonder if you actually saw it in the first place. Maybe that is the best explanation as to why some people see ghosts.

The above photo was taken by a cell phone and sent to us to evaluate.  We were unable to personally evaluate the location or conditions that the picture was taken.  The apparition seems to be legitimate since we could not find evidence of any tampering with the picture.

For more information see Paranormal Activity Research to read David Margerum's article "Psychic Senses and Seeing Ghosts" October 7, 2011.

 

The Ouija Board, Its History And Disposal Of The Board by Lucy West

The Ouija Board 

Some form of divination has been used since ancient times, whether it was astronomy, crystal gazing, dowsing rods, palmistry, scrying, automatic writing, or table turning. In more modern times, the Ouija board has been the exceedingly popular choice for divination. Since the latter half of the nineteenth century, Ouija boards have been the divination tool for the masses because it is easy to use and easy to get a hold of, which has caused some serious consequences for many people that have used them. This article will discuss a brief history of the Ouija board and also the best way to dispose of one. 

The History

Robert Murch, Jr., an expert, historian, and collector of Ouija boards states that the first known patent for a talking board, the precursor of the Ouija, was filed in London, England nearly thirty years before the Ouija would make its debut in the United States. According to Murch, “Adolphus Theodore Wagner, a professor of music and resident of Berlin of the Kingdom of Prussia, filed his patent for a “PSYCHOGRAPH, OR APPARATUS FOR INDICATING PERSONS THOUGHTS BY THE AGENT OF NERVOUS ELECTRICITY” on January 23, 1854,” (Murch, pg 1).  Wagner’s psychograph was intended to be used to spell out what was in a nervous person’s mind just by having the patient place their hand on a disc that would move around a slab with the alphabet and numbers printed on it. In a time when Spiritualism was at its peak, this type of device and the possibilities it presented were very appealing.

Spirituality became popular in the United States due in large part to the conditions of the time. Life expectancies were not high and the Civil War was taking the lives of many men. People of this time were desperate for ways to communicate with their lost loved ones. For the wealthy, it was also a way to show that you were keeping up on the latest fads. It was a common occurrence for people to host séances in their homes like parties. In a time when technology was beginning to progress and processes began to speed up, people also wanted a quicker, easier way to communicate with spirits. Smart business men also saw this as a way to make a large profit on the people that bought into the mysticism of communicating with the dead. This is what birthed the Ouija board.

In an article written by renowned paranormal expert John Zaffis, he states that the Ouija was created by E. C. Reiche. Reiche “devised a wooden lap tray with the letters of the alphabet arranged in two lines across the center of the board. Below these letters, he placed the numbers 1-10 and the words YES and NO in each lower corner of the board.” A planchette was used as the disc like device that would be touched and then moved across the board to spell out the message. Reiche sold the invention to his friend Charles Kennard around 1890.

Kennard got together a group of four investors, two of whom were Elijah Bond and Col. Washington Bowie, and created the Kennard Novelty Company. In order to market their product, they first needed a name. It is a popular belief that the name “Ouija” comes from combining the French and German words for “yes,” but that is not the case. According to Smithsonianmag.com, Kennard and his sister-in-law, Helen Peters, supposedly a medium, “asked the board what they should call it; the name ‘Ouija’ came through and, when they asked what that meant, the board replied, ‘Good luck’,” (McRobbie). Once they had a name, Elijah Bond was granted the patent for the modern Ouija board in 1891 and Kennard Novelty Company became the first producer of the Ouija board.

By 1893, Kennard and Bond were no longer involved with the Kennard Novelty Company and it was being run by William Fuld. In 1898, Fuld was licensed exclusive rights to make the board with the blessing of Col. Bowie, who held the largest shares in the company and was one of two of the remaining original investors, (McRobbie). By 1919, Fuld had control of all the shares of Kennard Novelty Company and was the primary partner in the business. After Fuld’s death, his children took over running the company. The Fuld family held the rights to the Ouija board until February 24, 1966 when Parker Brothers made the family an offer to acquire all the assets of the Fuld family company (Murch, pg 5).

With each new period of turmoil or uncertainty in the United States, for instance The Great Depression and the Vietnam War, the Ouija board would pick up popularity. People would turn to it in hopes of getting advice on what they should or should not do. The boards always sold well in stores and it was manufactured in many factories in the US and in England. Norman Rockwell featured one in a painting he did in May of 1920 and one was also featured on an episode of I Love Lucy. Ouija boards had become a large part of our culture.

Ouija boards did not have a negative connotation until 1973, when The Exorcist made its debut. In the film there was an “implication that 12-year-old Regan was possessed by a demon after playing with a Ouija board,” (McRobbie). After that, the entire feeling associated with the board changed. The boards were featured as the source of evil spirit connections many, many times after that. Religious groups protested them, stating that they were the tool of the Devil. People still bought the boards, though, but it was because they were scary and dangerous, not because they provided a spiritual outlet.

It could be said that with that change in mentality toward the Ouija board, there was a change in the purpose and the way that the boards were used. It is possible that spirits attached themselves to people that used the boards all along. But it seems reasonable to say that if more people were opened up to the possibility of using the boards to communicate with evil, then more instances of that occurred. That is why it is important to be very careful when thinking about using a Ouija board. It is safest to just leave them alone. You can’t know for sure what or who you are contacting and you can’t know the consequences of opening up that communication, no matter what your intentions are. “You can play with the Ouija board and nothing will happen, but somewhere in the future something could. You must remember there is no time in the spirit world, things do not have to happen right away. Things will start to happen just when you seem to have everything going good for you, and then it hits you, just when you least expect it. I can tell you that I’ve worked on many cases where things will occur one to seven years later.” (Zaffis). 

Disposal of the Ouija Board

In doing my research when it comes to disposing of Ouija boards, I read many theories and options on how to get rid of one. There are several ways that I know you should avoid and there is one way that is your best bet of ridding yourself of the board and its energies. Below is a summarization of the consensus I found on disposals of Ouija boards in my research.

 


 

Things to avoid:

·Do not throw the board away. Believe it or not, when you throw a Ouija board away, it can  sometimes show back up in your home or on your porch.

·Do not burn the board. When you burn the board, you are releasing the energy that is attached to  the board and setting it free. You don’t want that energy being even freer than it already was.

·Do not break the board into pieces. The board might show up a few days later fully restored,  anyway.

·Do not bind the board with anything. If you bind something, you are, in a way, binding it to yourself.  You don’t want to tether that energy to you. That is the opposite of what you are trying to do.

 

Some people believe that properly closing out of a session on the Ouija board by saying goodbye and having the spirit do the same is a safe way to end things, but by doing this, it seems you are expected to either keep the board or give it away to someone else. I don’t think it is fair to be burdened with the board forever or to pass it off onto someone else, though.

 

The best way I found to dispose of the board is to cleanse the board and the planchette, then to bury them both in the ground. There are many ways to cleanse the board, and different religions have different ways of doing cleansings also. Below is a list of ways to cleanse the board. It is a good idea to say a prayer while doing any type of cleansing because it blesses the process itself. Cleansings also work better when there are fewer people around because there is less conflicting energy.

 

·Asperging involves sprinkling a liquid of choice on the board in order to cleanse it. Regular water,  holy water, and/or water mixed with a bit of salt are popular options for this.

·Salt is a very popular cleanser and any salt will do. Just sprinkle it on the board or rub it on.

·Running the board under water is also a common way to cleanse the board because the water is  seen as washing the energy away.

 

Once the board has been cleansed, bury the board and the planchette, but make sure they are not touching. If they are touching, they can still be used. The earth will absorb the energy of the Ouija board and it is the safest place for it to be. Consecrated ground, according to John Zaffis in a podcast he did on Darkness Radio, would be the best place to bury the board, but as most of us are not able to bury things in consecrated ground without breaking laws, burying the Ouija board in the yard will work just fine.

I think it would also be smart to cleanse your home or wherever you used the Ouija board after disposing of it to get rid of any residual energy there. Saying a prayer or blessing of choice while sprinkling salt, burning white candles, sprinkling holy water, or burning sage or another purifying herb would be good for this.

Following these guidelines should dispose of your Ouija board properly without any negative consequences.

 

Resources

 

Christina. "Cleansing Objects." The Little Witch. Tumblr, 1 July 2013. Web. 27 Mar. 2014. <http://witchcraftings.tumblr.com/post/54362849773/cleansing-objects>.

 

Fogarty, Carole. "A Guide To Cleansing The Energy In Your Home." Rejuvenation Lounge. World Press, n.d. Web. 27 Mar. 2014. <http://thehealthylivinglounge.com/2010/07/26/a-simple-guide-to-cleansing-the-energy-in-your-home/>.

 

McRobbie, Linda R. "The Strange and Mysterious History of the Ouija Board." Smithsonianmag.com. Smithsonian, 28 Oct. 2013. Web. 27 Mar. 2014. <http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/the-strange-and-mysterious-history-of-the-ouija-board-5860627/?all>.

 

Murch, Robert. "Detailed History of William Fuld and the Ouija Board." WilliamFuld.com - Ouija History. Robert Murch, 2007. Web. 28 Mar. 2014. <http://www.williamfuld.com/ouija1.html>.

 

Tanner, Melissa. "Disposal of a Ouija Board." TNT Paranormal Investigators General Paranormal Forum. TNT Paranormal Investigators, 3 Jan. 2012. Web. 27 Mar. 2014. <http://www.tntparanormal.com/apps/forums/topics/show/7054034>.

 

Zaffis, John. "The Ouija Board & It's History." Paranormal Research Society of New England - Demonology: The Study of Fallen Angels. Paranormal Research Society of New England, 2013. Web. 28 Mar. 2014. <http://www.prsne.com/#!demonology>.
 
 

News Articles Paramount Theatre Investigation

Paranormal investigators visit Paramount

Team looks into historic theater's alleged hauntings

ANDERSON — Perched center stage at the Paramount Theatre, the group looks over the rows of seats and up into the balcony. There’s no spotlight, no audience, just darkness.

“I’m Kelly.”

“I’m Jim.”

“I’m Michael.”

Silence.

Kelly Schuck, her husband Jim and Michael Gerholdt sat and waited.

The group notes they’re getting light through the glass doors from cars outside. It’s important for the team to tag any proven interference for their evidence, even if skeptics may doubt its validity.

The three are part of the Paranormal Answers Research Team (PART), a group of investigators who travel to alleged haunting sites, mainly in Indiana.

Lead investigator Kelly Schuck and six others visited the Paramount on March 22 to see if the building filled with history is also filled with ghosts.

“My gut feeling is we probably caught something (on recordings),” Schuck said after the investigation but before she went over the evidence.

PART got to roam the Paramount in total darkness. They started setting up at 8 p.m. and ended the investigation at 1 a.m.

Just like in popular television shows “Ghost Hunters” and “Ghost Adventures,” the team set up night vision cameras throughout the building with a live feed to a computer monitor set up at their command post backstage.

Armed with video cameras, audio recorders and K-2 meters, devices that measure electromagnetic fields and ghost investigators believe can detect spirits’ energy, the team split into two groups.

PART investigated various areas of the Paramount, including the stage, Hardacre Ballroom, basement and women’s dressing room.

“It’s not unusual to have those kinds of stories with historic theaters,” she said. “It’s part of the romance of the theater.”

Jones Burris said in the five years she’s worked there, a handful of events have happened to her. She once was alerted that someone tried to use the elevator emergency line. When she went to check, no one was there.

When she was first hired as the director, she said the motion detectors went off a lot. Several times she walked throughout the building with Anderson Police Department officers but they couldn’t find anyone.

“Instead of being afraid, someone can just say, ‘It’s Charlie,’” Jones Burris said. “They’re willing to believe that. It’s a theater, we’re all dramatic.”

Schuck, who also describes herself as a medium, said she didn’t detect any malicious entities in the theater.

Throughout the investigation, she said she could hear voices speaking and see shadows of possible spirits, which is part of the reason it was important for the team to document the cars’ beams reflecting in the building. The team doesn’t want to be quick to think everything is supernatural, so they debunk as much as possible.

Schuck said she can usually hear more than most people, but her fellow investigators often pick up on things as well.

“You learn to tag everything,” she said. “If you heard something, that’s where scientific approach comes in. If we tag someone’s talking, we know it’s not an EVP (Electronic Voice Phenomenon).”

Her husband is the technical manager of the group and filmed much of the investigation. Between video and audio recordings, it can take at least two weeks to go through all the evidence.

All the investigators have full time jobs, so the money spent on ghost hunting is out of pocket and during their free time. They have at least $4,000 worth of equipment, and footage from each investigation takes more than 40 hours to review.

Schuck said she’s only about a third through reviewing video footage from the Paramount and so far hasn’t found any visual evidence, but the team picked up good audio from each room. Among the audio was a male voice singing a “jazzy riff” 24 minutes into the investigation, she said.

PART case manager Rick Hodge said he investigated the Paramount in 2013 with a different paranormal research team. Although he thinks he got more EVPs in the basement by himself in the last year, he thinks this investigation went better.

Hodge said he got responses through EVP and his ghost box, a device that continually scans radio frequencies and investigators believe spirits can use to communicate.

“I asked if they used to perform at the theater and I got an EVP that said ‘maybe,’” he said.

At one point, Hodge said he asked if the spirits wanted him to turn off the ghost box and he got the response, “Do it.”

Most of PART’s investigations take place at homes throughout the state. People contact them when supernatural events occur and they don’t know what to do, especially when children are involved.

Schuck said a lot of people don’t believe in the paranormal until they experience it, and that’s when PART gets calls.

All she can do is get her evidence out there, she said.

“Paranormal is just what you can’t explain through natural explanations,” Schuck said. “Paranormal just means out of the normal.”

Jones Burris said the staff at the Paramount believes there are likely spirits protecting the theater.

“Saying the Paramount is haunted is kind of like the Santa Claus discussion,” she said. “You don’t want to say there’s no such thing because what if there is?”

To learn more about PART and its investigations, go to paranormalanswersresearchteam.com.

Like Kelly Dickey on Facebook and follow her on Twitter @KellyD_THB, or call 640-4805.

http://www.heraldbulletin.com/peopleandplaces/x1445051003/Paranormal-investigators-visit-Paramount

 April 16, 2014

Kelly Dickey: Ghost hunting leads to more skepticism and a fun story

Ghosts have never been something I’ve 100 percent believed in. I’ve had weird experiences happen to me that I couldn’t explain, but I’m also a bit of a skeptic, constantly looking for a logical explanation.

The thought of spirits terrified me as a kid, intrigued me as a teen and added to the various questions I have about life as an adult.

But mainly they’ve been entertaining. I’ve spent countless hours watching horror films, reality shows or just hearing friends talk about weird experiences in their childhood homes.

So when I got invited to tag along with a paranormal team during an investigation at Paramount Theatre, I pounced on the opportunity.

Shortly after 8 p.m. March 22, I watched the Paranormal Answers Research Team set up equipment I had only seen on shows like “Ghost Adventures” (fun fact: ghost boxes aren’t as loud and annoying in person as they are on TV).

Lead investigator Kelly Schuck went over the rules before we began: talk in a normal voice instead of whispering, if I make a noise I should tag it for the audio recording and if I feel tingling, nauseated or like something’s touching me, let her know.

I agreed to the rules, but in the back of my mind I was already questioning if I would announce if I felt funny. Not necessarily because I didn’t believe, but more because discovering phantom ailments is almost a hobby at this point; I spend way too much time on WebMD.com trying to pinpoint my disease of the week.

So when Schuck announced to the empty, dark room that it was my first investigation and the spirits could touch me, I silently prayed they wouldn’t so I didn’t have to determine if I was imagining it.

Several minutes passed. I felt nothing.

Then nearly a half hour into the investigation, it began. It started in all my toes, that tingling, your-foot’s-about-to-fall-asleep feeling.

“Well, I have been sitting here for a while,” I justified to myself.

Then I got goosebumps all over my body.

“I’ve been cold ever since I got here. I’m just focusing too much on the temperature of the room,” I thought.

Eventually I felt nauseated and pressure started to build in my head. It slowly built until the compression made it feel like I had gone deep sea diving instead of sitting at the Paramount.

But it wasn’t until I felt like I was about to pass out that I finally said something.

Investigator Michael Gerholdt grabbed the K-2 meter. He waved it around my head and I saw the number of lights grow, indicating an increase in energy – possibly from a ghost.

My headache started to disappear, and so did the glowing lights.

As the investigation continued, I hoped those feelings would creep up on me again. I figured it could verify what happened to me was real or I would have more symptoms to look up on the Internet later.

But nothing happened. No more feelings. No apparitions. No items floating in the air.

I was barely out of the theater by the time I started questioning what happened on stage. Was it paranormal or was it a self-fulfilling prophecy?

More importantly, did it really matter?

I don’t need a concrete answer. The way I see it, it’s fun to think about either way.

Like Kelly Dickey on Facebook and follow her on Twitter @KellyD_THB, or call 640-4805.

http://www.heraldbulletin.com/peopleandplaces/x1445051007/Kelly-Dickey-Ghost-hunting-leads-to-more-skepticism-and-a-fun-story?zc_p=0

History Research Notes For Watseka, IL

WE HAVE INCLUDED OUR NOTES HERE BECAUSE IT BOTH SHOWS AN INTERESTING HISTORY AND WE HOPE IT HELPS OTHERS WITH RESEARCHING A HISTORICAL LOCATION.

Hubbard Trading Post marker - Iroquois, IL

http://www.waymarking.com/waymarks/WM7P5E_Hubbard_Trading_Post_marker_Iroquois_IL

Forest County Potawatomi Main Office: 715-478-7200 or Toll Free:800-960-5479

5416 Everybody's Rd., Crandon, WI 54520    

For more information about the Forest County Potawatomi Library please call 715-478-4841

A Centennial History of the Villages of Iroquois and Montgomery and the Township of Concord 1818-1918

 By Salem Ely  Iriquois,  Ill.   August 1918

http://books.google.com/books/about/A_Centennial_History_of_the_Villages_of.html?id=EeghXIBZpegC

“When the first white men came to the spot where now located the villages of Montgomery and Iroquois, the found a large settlement of Indians.  Their village embraced both side of the Iroquois river.  The tribe belonged to that powerful nation known as the Pottawatomies—a nation inclined to be peaceable and friendly—and this tribe, prompted by the spirit of their own nation, welcomed to their village the white men with open arms.” p. 1

“This beautiful Indian village was situated on rather a high table land with small running streams flowing into the river, which afforded excellent natural drainage.  It was surrounded by a bank of primeval which tempered the cold wind of winter.” p. 2

“Here nestled the Indian village, its wigwam and play-grounds and gardens.  On the south bank of the river was its burying ground.  It was here the children played their innocent games of childhood and the young men planned for the chase.  The old men gathered in groups and smoked their pipes and told their stories of adventure while the women worked the gardens and prepared the simple meal.” p. 3

“A pathetic story is told of the tragic life of a young and pretty Indian maiden, named Watch-e-kee, from whom Watseka, the present county seat of Iroquois county, derived its name.  She was the neice of an Indian chief of the Pottawatomies, and was born (about the year 1810) and reared in the village which peacefully nestled in the sheltering forest of where the towns of Montgomery and Concord are now situated.  It is said that this maiden was not only charming in manner but was bright and intelligent. -----Beckwith’s History of Iroquois County gives the story as follows:

 “When Col. Hubbard came among the Indians on the Iroquois, he soon saw the necessity as a matter of protection and safety, to form more intimate relations with them than that of mere trade, and therefore in the course of time married—according to the Indian custom an Indian woman by the name of Watch-e-kee, who was the niece of the Pottawatomie chief, Tamin, whos village was then on the present day site of Concord (Buncombe).  In answer to an inquiry made by the writer as to this matter, Col. Hubbard says: ‘I have no wish to deny the fact of her being my wife, given me by her uncle (the chief) when she was about 10, in the place of his own grown daughter, whom he presented to me and I declined.  This little girl was to take her place, and was, under my pledge to make her my wife, brought to me by her mother at the age of fourteen or fifteen.  She bore me a daughter, who died at about eight months old.  I lived with this Indian woman for about two years in harmony.  Our separation was by mutual agreement, in perfect friendship, and because I was about to abandon  the Indian trade, and of course my connection with her tribe.  Both thought each other’s happiness would be promoted by separation, as it doubtless was.”  p. 11-13

"After her separation from Hubbard, according to the Indian custom, and his retiring from ‘Buncombe,’  she in 1828 married Noel Le Vasseur, who had been (Hubbard’s business partner and ) left in charge of the post. Her tribe, except a remnant, were removed west, after the treaty of October, 1833, and she and Vasseur then removed to Bourbonnais Grove, on the Kankakee River.  She bore him several children, some of whom are still living in Kansas.” p. 14

“Montgomery and Concord . . .This group of towns, at the beginning of their history were derisively called Bunkum.  The name in time grew so popular that they were generally not known by their correct names.” p. 7 

(The joint villages were later known as Iroquois--Montgomery and the Indian village are now extinct villages except for their roads at the time this book was written.)

“I shall now describe as well as I can the Indian trails that then existed in this county.  It is not certain that their location at some points is fully determined, but I shall give them the best that I can.  There was a trail commencing at Mr. Hubbard’s  trading post here, leading down the north side of the river along the timber to the mouth of Sugar Creek, where it crossed the Iroquois.  At that point there were two trails.  One led southwest past Jefferson’s point, crossing Spring creek it filed along the timber to Onarga (my house stands right on that trail), to Kickapoo Grove, now Oliver’s Grove.  The other branch went down west and south to the farm owned by Benjamin F. Masters; crossed Sugar creek, and from there it led away down across the prairie to Danville.  There was another trail which started from Hubbard’s place here and crossed the river near the Iroquois bridge.  In a short distance it divided into three branches; one went to Lafayette, one to Milford, and the third to the mouth of Sugar creek.  There was a crossing at the old town of Texas.  There was an old trail leading from here north to a ford on the upper part of Beaver creek, in this county.  This ford was called the Shobear crossing.  Three or four miles from the trading post a branch turned northwest and crossed the Kankakee at Aroma.  The old Buck-horn tavern was on this trail.  An Indian trail also extended from the mouth of Sugar creek down the Iroquois on the east side.  From the best information that I have been able to get, these were the original trails that the Indians had here in 1822.” p. 67 -68

“The more important of the trails from Danville north was Hubbard’s trail to Chicago.”

<genealogytrails.com/ill/iroquois/Gilman.htm‎>

Illinois Genealogy Trails Gilman ...  Iriquois County-Originally the Oppy homestead and used in early history as a tavern.

From here you turn north, leaving the Onarga trail to the south and west and again cross Spring Creek, which in the days of yore, could be compared to the "Rubicon" in so far as intensified and oftentimes manifested interest to the residents on each of its sides showed in their choice of trading points. On the north side of Spring Creek the people were decidedly pro Onarga. A mile to the northeast where you turn west the home of Frode Lund, a famous pioneer homestead and known at different times as the Tucker, Young and Collier farms. Farther west and north ½ mile was equally as famous a home. Originally the Oppy homestead and used in early history as a tavern. It was on the junction of the Butterfield and Kickapoo Indian Trails. This famous homestead has been owned since the Oppy by a number of farmers by the names of Thomas and Redenius and the present owner is Anna Nims.   

http://www.native-languages.org/potawatomi-legends.htm

http://www.neaseno.org/recordings-for-self-study.html

http://iroquoiscountyhistoricalsociety.com/

http://archive.org/stream/americanaerialco15drur/americanaerialco15drur_djvu.txt

"THE "BUNKUM" SETTLEMENT b^

About 1830 the enterprising Gordon Hubbard built another log trading post

on the Iroquois River, this one closer to the Indiana boundary line than the

cabin he had constructed earlier at the future site of Watseka. When a few

others settled near this second Hubbard cabin, the little settlement, for some

reason, came to be known as "Bunkum." Located on the south bank of the

Iroquois River, the settlement continued to be called Bunkum even after it was

organized into a village bearing the name of Montgomery.

In time another settlement grew up nearby and this was called Concord.   But both Montgomery and Concord were still linked together under the name of

Bunkum in the minds of many people throughout the countryside, even though

Montgomery had been designated county seat when Iroquois County was organ-

ized in 1833- By 1865, when the county seat was moved to Watseka, both Mont-

gomery and Concord were declining and a new settlement was emerging on the

north bank of the Iroquois, just opposite the old villages.

 

When the Big Four Railroad was built through here in 1874, it erected a

station in the new settlement, and, to end the confusion in names, called it

"Iroquois" after the river on which it was located. Four years later, the old

community of Concord incorporated under the new name of Iroquois. Today,

Iroquois has a population of 232 and is the only village in Concord Township.

EARLY ARRIVALS '^ ^

Among the earliest settlers who built cabins around the Hubbard trading

post at Bunkum were the Ferry, Cartright (Courtright), Thomas, Newcomb and Miller fam-

ilies. About the same time that Hubbard built his trading post here, another

settlement was made in the area that now is the village of Milford, just south

of Watseka. Some of the earliest residents of the Milford site were the Hill,

Rush, Miles, Pickell, Cox, Moore, Parker and Stanley families. Today, Milford

is a thriving town of 1,648 population. It is situated on the Chicago & Eastern

Illinois Railroad and on State I. The town is the principal community of Milford

Township.

With the coming of the Auto Age, what was originally the Hubbard Trail 

and later the Chicago-Vincennes State Road, became the State I of today."